“The attackers tried to ensure permanent access to the affected system,” it said.And a Chinese cyber-espionage group was probably behind an attack on the foreign ministry’s non-classified network using malware, the BIS added. It said that a third incident, a malware attack on the private e-mail accounts of Czech soldiers, was carried out by the APT28 group, which the FBI links to the Russian government. “The intelligence services of the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China carry out the most active and most aggressive activities,” said the BIS. “Russian and Chinese intelligence activities affected the sectors of politics, diplomacy, espionage, economy and information struggle” in 2018, it added. Russia had sought “to manipulate the decision-making process and individuals responsible for decision-making”, said the report. The staff of all Russian intelligence services were active on the Czech territory in 2018, it added. China meanwhile was looking for potential agents among Czech citizens and the presence of its intelligence services was growing, said the BIS. The BIS also singled out Russian disinformation campaigns and propaganda as a threat. In September the NUKIB, the Czech agency battling cybercrime, said Russia and China posed the biggest threat to cybersecurity in the Czech Republic, an ex-communist country that joined NATO in 1999. Already in its 2017 report, the NUKIB warned that Russian and Chinese diplomats had stepped up their spying activities on Czech soil. This sparked criticism from the pro-Chinese, pro-Russian, anti-Muslim Czech President Milos Zeman who called on the intelligence agency to look for Muslim terrorists on Czech territory instead. In the 2018 report however, the BIS said it had not detected any direct risks posed by Islamic radicals or terrorists.